Crew Resource Management and the Continuous Improvement Cycle

CRM and CIC training encompass non-technical (soft) skills proven by the commercial airline industry to yield six sigma reliabilities.  CAVU provides the fundamental skills for precision operations, reinforcing corporate culture and safety principles as well as supporting strategic vision, goals, and objectives, centered around CRM – “the culture,” and “CIC” – the process.

Achieving high quality CRM and CIC skills will contribute to mitigating the risk of human error in safety critical operations, enhancing operational performance, and reducing the potential for poor decision making in stressful situations. This training provides the knowledge, skills and motivation to crew members involved in safety critical operations necessary to:

  • Perform effectively in a team context
  • Recognize any deterioration in cognitive and interpersonal skills in themselves and others
  • Have the willingness as well as cognitive and interpersonal skills to take action and to accept interventions from others in a timely and effective manner

The training program will introduce the six critical skills essential for effective CRM through on-the-job training and mentoring.

  • Leadership
  • Situational Awareness
  • Decision making
  • Communication
  • Teamwork
  • Human factors

As well as the process of Continuous Improvement utilizing a CIC

  • Prepare
  • Execute
  • Review
  • Improve

CRM learning objectives


Introducing the leadership skills necessary to direct, manage and support a team to accomplish tasks for set targets.  Learning objectives include:

  • Supporting a CRM team mindset
  • Managing versus leading a team

Decision Making

Diagnosing a situation and reaching a judgement to choose an appropriate course of action.  Learning objectives include:

  • Examining individual “decision making” factors
  • Identifying factors that have a detrimental effect on decision making


Working in a group to ensure joint task completion to include coordination, cooperation and conflict resolution. Learning objectives include:

  • Examining the effectiveness of the team as a unit
  • Key skills that help a team work well to achieve smooth task execution, safe operations and job satisfaction for team members

Situational Awareness

Developing and maintaining a dynamic awareness of the situation and the risks present during operations.  Techniques for gathering information from multiple sources from the task environment, understanding what the information means and using it to think ahead about what may happen next.  Learning objectives include:

  • Understanding of the concept of component skills and influencing factors
  • Utilizing mutual support to enhance situational awareness

Human Factors

Interaction of individuals with each other, with facilities, with equipment and with management systems.  Learning objectives include:

  • Recognize the symptoms of stress and fatigue in themselves and others, and identifying the techniques to cope with these factors
  • Gaining an understanding of how performance shaping factors such as fatigue and stress (acute and chronic) can affect job performance and individual well being


The exchange (transmission and reception) of information, ideas and beliefs, by verbal and non-verbal methods.  Learning objectives include:

  • Role of communication for safe and efficient operations and the factors that influence it
  • Communication accountability
  • Techniques for giving feedback, listening, briefing and assertiveness

CIC Learning Objectives

The Continuous Improvement Cycle


Skills associated with preparing your team for the job.

  • Document preparation – Job Safety Analysis (JSA), Permit to Work (PTW)
  • Equipment – Required / Inspected / Available
  • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) & Barriers Required
  • Personnel Required
  • Communication plan – Voice, Radios (check now), Hand Signals (verify now)
  • Time Required to Perform Task
  • Specify Task Assignments
  • Review Job Steps
  • Review Hazards and Mitigation
  • Verify steps/ hazards missed by reviewing JSA
  • Last Minute Risk Assessment
  • Process Safety Timeout –
    • What is the worst thing that could happen today?
    • What can we do about it?


Skills and techniques utilized by high performing teams during job execution.  Specific learning objectives include:

  • Briefing the work plan
  • Situational Awareness
  • Supervisor responsibilities
  • Team Backup
  • Questioning Attitude
  • Hazard Identification for Changing conditions
  • Change / Barrier Management
  • Contingencies (Fire Drill response, equipment/ power failure, etc)


Skills and techniques utilized by high performing teams “post job” to assemble lessons learned and best practices.  Specific learning objectives include:

  • Did actual result match plan?
  • Prepare: What went well? Areas for Improvement?
  • Act: What went well? Areas for Improvement?
  • Lessons Learned: Do procedures need to be updated? Do teams need improvement?


Skills and techniques utilized by high performing teams to take the lessons learned and best practices during the review phase and integrate them back into the organization’s standard operating procedures.  Specific learning objectives include:

  • Implement lessons learned
  • Make good ideas permanent
  • Improve Performance
  • Improve & Update:
    • Procedures
    • Work instructions